mardi 27 octobre 2015

Systeme educatif en France (Education system in France)








Have you ever wondered what the education system is like in France? Have you ever wondered how to say "Grade 1, Grade 2, Grade 3 ,etc"? The Education system and their concept of grade level are different than ours in Jamaica. 

If you look on the chart, depending on your age, you will see and be able to determine what grade level you are in according to each insitution (École, school; Collège, lower secondary school; Lycée, upper high school). For example, in Jamaica, generally seventh graders aged between 12-13 so if you are in grade 2 in Jamaica, you would be in "Cours élémentaire 2", which is an equivalent of grade 7. If you are in grade 8, you are in "Quatrieme". The numbers go backwards, basically and our numbers go forwards.

























Petite section, Moyenne section, Grand section: Kindergarten to Intermediate level

Cours préparatoire: Grade 1 equivalent

Cours élémentaire 1: Grade 2 equivalent

Cours élémentaire 2: Grade 3 equivalent

Cours moyen 1: Grade 4 equivalent

Cours moyen 2: Grade 5 equivalent


Note that when translating in English, it is not only the words that we must bare in mind but also the idea. If you notice, the vocabulary above are ideas of what Grade 1, 2, is like in France and in other Francophone countries that may have a similar education system.









Have you ever wondered what the education system is like in France? Have you ever wondered how to say "Grade 7, Grade 8, Grade 9, etc"? The Education system and their concept of grade level are different than ours in Jamaica. 

If you look on the chart, depending on your age, you will see and be able to determine what grade level you are in according to each insitution (École, school; Collège, lower secondary school; Lycée, upper high school). For example, in Jamaica, generally seventh graders aged between 12-13 so if you are in grade 7 in Jamaica, you are in "Cinquième", which is an equivalent of grade 7. If you are in grade 8, you would be in "Quatrième". The numbers go backwards, basically and our numbers go forwards.





















Sixième: Probably the equivalent of grade 6

Cinquième: Grade 7 equivalent

Quatrième: Grade 8 equivalent

Troisième: Grade 9 equivalent

Classe seconde: Grade 10 equivalent

Classe première: Grade 11 equivalent

Classe terminale: Grade 12 and 13 equivalent


Note that when translating in English, it is not only the words that we must bare in mind but also the idea. If you notice, the vocabulary above are ideas of what Grade 1, 2, is like in France and in other Francophone countries that may have a similar education system.



Les adjectifs possessifs (Possessive adjectives)





FRENCH POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES


Do you remember the song we sang in class? The song below has the tune "My head, my shoulders, my knees, my toes, "My head, my shoulders, my knees, my toes", God made them all! Try to sing it or say it aloud during your spare time.


Chanson:

Ma tête,
Mon épaule, 
Mon genou, 
Mon pied!

Ma tête, 
Mon oreille,
Mon ventre,
Ma jambe!

Dieu les a créées! 



Nos têtes,
Nos épaules, 
Nos genoux, 
Nos pieds!

Nos têtes, 
Nos oreilles,
Nos ventres,
Nos jambes!

Dieu les a créées! 




French possessive adjectives are used to show ownership of something or to say that something belongs to us. The chart above shows the translation of each adjective. Mon may be for masculine nouns and Ma may be feminine nouns, but if Mon or Ma is supposed to precede a word beginning with a vowel, it is always Mon.

Ex: Mon épaule, mon oreille, etc



French possessive adjectives are used to show ownership of something or to say that something belongs to us. The chart above shows the translation of each adjective. Ton may be for masculine nouns and Tmay be feminine nouns, but if Ton or Ta is supposed to precede a word beginning with a vowel, it is always Ton.

Ex: Ton épaule, ton oreille, etc








If, whatever I possess is feminine, for example table,  my table will be ma table, irrespective of my own gender. Furthermore, I could never be plural as there will never be more than one me (!), so I could never use MES to describe something which is mine, unless,unless, what is mine is plural! Now do you see how important it is to remember the formula? You are starting to see the light but you need some examples. I am going to use French words which are similar to the English to make it easier.

table (f)
table
villlage (m)
village
parents(plural)
parents
enfants (plural)
children
brochure (f)
brochure
crayon (m)
pencil


Let’s keep to what’s mine for the moment:
 ma table (f)
my table
mon villlage (m)
my village
mes parents (plural)
my parents
mes enfants (plural)
my children
ma brochure (f)
my brochure
mon crayon (m)
my pencil

lundi 12 octobre 2015

French alphabet and pronunciation guide

LES REGIONS FRANCAISES (FRENCH REGIONS)


Do you remember when we looked at some of the French regions and you attempted to pronounce the name of each one in class?

How are each of the regions pronounced according to the charts shown below?




French alphabet













Vowel Sounds in French

Ou (as in tooth, booth, root)

                  vous - jour

Oi (as in wax)

                  toi - voiture

on / om (as in under, undo)

                  bonbon - pompier- nom - prénom

Ai (as in eh)

                  fraise - aimer

Ei (as in eh)

                  treize - peigner- seize

Ain (as in can, dam)
                  train - demain
Ein (as in can, dam)

                  peinture - sein- éteindre- ceinture

in/im/ym (as in can, dam)
                  invisible - important- impossible - sympa
un / um (as in can, dam)

                  lundi - humble

en / em (as in under, undo)

                  comment - emporter- emmener

an / am (as in under, undo)
                  chanter - jambe
Eu (as in sir, birth)

                  cheveux - heureux

Eur (as in sir, birth)
                  professeur - chasseur- entrepreneur
Oeur (as in sir, birth)

                  coeur - soeur

Oin (as in wax)

                  moins - point - droit

Au (as in own, owe)
                  jaune - dauphin
Eau (as in own, owe)


                  château - beau


Ay (as in day, may, ray)

                  pays - rayure

Oy (as in wax)

                  voyage - aboyer


Gn (as in nye)                                           champagne, espagnol, enseignant



Qu (as in K)                                              Jamaique, unique, quitter, Afrique







DES VILLES FRANCAISES (SOME FRENCH CITIES)


See if you can pronounce the names of the cities in French shown in the map above.




Note: 
La pratique rend parfait, donc il faut pratiquer ces voyelles par voie orale (en parlant) tous les jours afin que tu sois parfaitement capable prononcer les mots français. Si tu ne réussis pas, essaie et essaie encore !!!

Practice makes perfect, so you must practice these vowel sounds orally (by speaking) everyday so that you may be able pronounce French words perfectly. If first you do not succeed, try and try again!!!





samedi 10 octobre 2015

Classroom instructions and expressions that we use







Instructions/requests made using, "S'il vous plaît, s'il te plaît"


The French expressions, "S'il vous plaît" and "s'il te plaît" both mean "please" in English which literally mean "if it pleases you".


"S'il vous plaît" is a polite request made to one person when you would like him or her to do something. It is also a request made to two persons or a group of persons.


"S'il te plaît" is a request made to one person only, one that you know well, one that is your classmate or friend. Not used when speaking to a teacher or principal.




Assieds-toi, s'il te plait - Sit down, please


Asseyez-vous, s'il vous plait - Sit down, please


N'écris pas, s'il te plaît - Do not write, please


N'écrivez pas, s'il vous plaît - Do not write, please



Tais-toi, s'il te plaît - Please be quiet

Taisez-vous, s'il vous plaît - Please be quiet 



Commence - Please begin/ Begin 

Commencez - Please begin/ Begin






Other expressions and some questions:


On commence - Let's begin/ let's start


Je te donne des exercices maintenant - I am giving you some exercises now

Je vous donne des exercices maintenant - I am giving you some exercises now

Prions maintenant - Let's pray now

Oui - Yes

Non - No

Ouais - Yeah

Pas mal - Not bad

Bien! - Good!

Très bien! - Very good!

Excellent! - Excellent! 

D'accord - Ok 

C'est bon - It's ok

Qu'est-ce qu'il y a? - What's wrong? What's happening?

On y va - Let's go

On prie/ Prions - Let's pray

Excuse-moi - Excuse me (To one person, to friend/ classmate)

Excusez-moi - Excuse me (To more than one person, to teacher or principal)

Puis-je aller aux toilettes, s'il vous plaît? - May I please go to the bathroom/restroom?

Puis-je boire de l'eau, s'il vous plaît? - May I please drink some water?

Oui, tu peux - Yes, you may

Non, tu ne peux pas - No, you may not


Est-ce que vous avez terminé? - Have you finished?

Est-ce que vous avez fini? - Have you finished?

Est-ce que tu es prêt? - Are you ready?

Est-ce que tu es prête? - Are you ready? (To a female only)

Est-ce que vous êtes prêts? - Are you ready?

Est-ce que vous êtes prêtes? - Are you ready (To more than one female or a group of females)

Je suis prêt - I am ready

Je suis prête - I am ready (Said by females only)

Nous sommes prêts - We are ready

Merci, Monsieur! - Thank you, Sir!

Merci, Madame! - Thank you, Miss!

Merci beaucoup! - Thank you very much!







Prière de la classe

Merci Dieu, pour me réveiller.
Merci Dieu, pour la nourriture et la vie.
Merci Dieu, pour la santé et la force.
Merci Dieu, pour les uns les autres.
Merci Dieu, pour tout.
Amen!

Thank you God, for waking me up.
Thank you God, for food and life.
Thank you God, for health and strength.
Thank you God, for each other
Thank you God, for everything.
Amen!



Se presenter en francais (Introducing yourself)







Basic French questions and responses



Bonjour! - Good morning!, Good day! Good afternoon!

Bonsoir! - Good evening! Good night!

Bonne journée! - Have a good day!

Bon après-midi! - Have a good afternoon!

Bonne soirée! - Have a  good evening!

Bonne nuit! - Good night! (When going to bed only)

Au revoir! - Good bye!

À lundi! - See you on Monday!

À mardi! - See you on Tuesday!

À jeudi! - See you on Thursday!

À la prochaine! - See you next time/ Until we meet!




Comment vas-tu?   

Comment allez-vous? 
                                                                         - How are you?
Comment ça va?



Et vous?         
                                                                        - And you/ yourself?
Et toi?



Je vais bien

Ça va bien                                                      - I am fine



Je vais mal   
                                                                      - Not so well
Ça va mal




Comment tu t'appelles?  (What is your name?)


Comment vous vous appelez? (What is your name?)
                         - 
Je m'appelle George Alexander (My name is George Alexander)

Je m'appelle Marianne Webster (My name is Marianne Webster)


Enchanté Marianne! - pleased to meet you Marianne!  (said by males)

Enchantée George! - pleased to meet you George! (said by females)








First name and last name

Nom: Alexander

Prénom: George


Nom: Webster


Prénom: Marianne



Note: In French, when filling out forms, you will see "Nom" and "Prénom". Nom generally means "name" but whenever it precedes "
Prénom" as seen in the example above, it means "surname/ last name" and "Prénom" means " first name".



mercredi 7 octobre 2015

Les accents français (French accents)














There are four French accents for vowels and one accent for a consonant.




The accent tréma ¨ 
(dieresis or umlaut) can be on an EI, or U. It is used when two vowels are next to each other and both must be pronounced, e.g., naïve, Jamaïque Saül.



The accent grave `
(grave accent) can be found on an AE, or UOn the A and U, it usually serves to distinguish between words that would otherwise be homographs; e.g., ou (or) vs (where).


The accent aigu ´ 
(acute accent) can only be on an E. At the beginning of a word, it often indicates that an S used to follow that vowel, e.g., étudiant (student).


The accent circonflexe ˆ 
(circumflex) can be on an A, E, I, O, or U. The circumflex usually indicates that an S used to follow that vowel, e.g., forêt (forest). It also serves to distinguish between homographs; e.g.,du (contraction of de + le) vs dû (past participle ofdevoir).



The cédille ¸ 
is found only on the letter C. It changes a hard C sound (like K) into a soft C sound (like S), e.g., garçon. The cedilla is never placed in front of E or I, because C always sounds like an S in front of these vowels



mardi 6 octobre 2015

French masculine nouns and word endings




Like Spanish, almost every noun has gender in French so it is important to remember them when referring to people, places, things or animals.



Almost every noun ending with "LON" are masculine nouns


C'est masculin 2...:









Almost every noun ending with "AN" are masculine nouns
...C'est masculin:








Almost every noun ending with "AGE" are masculine nouns

C'est masculin:

dimanche 4 octobre 2015

Poder del aceite de oliva para impedir algunas enfermedades












La dieta mediterránea suplementada con aceite de oliva virgen extra tiene efectos beneficiosos que disminuyen el riesgo de desarrollar retinopatía diabética, la principal causa de ceguera en la población diabética, según un estudio del Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red-Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición (CIBERobn) del Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII).

La investigación, publicada en la revista Diabetes Care, ha revelado que las personas con diabetes tipo 2 que llevan este tipo de dieta tienen un 44% menos de posibilidades de desarrollar retinopatía diabética, una enfermedad ocular que tiene su origen en el deterioro de los vasos sanguíneos que irrigan la retina, respecto a las personas que seguían una dieta baja en grasa.

Se trata de "la primera investigación que ofrece resultados de alto nivel científico" en cuanto a la relación entre los patrones dietéticos y la incidencia de complicaciones microvasculares, según ha explicado el investigador del CIBERobn y profesor de la Universidad Rovira y Virgili de Tarragona, Jordi Salas-Salvadó.

En este estudio participaron más de 3.000 pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 de toda España. De manera aleatoria, los participantes fueron repartidos para seguir distintas intervenciones dietéticas: unos debían llevar a cabo la dieta mediterránea suplementada con aceite de oliva virgen extra, otros una dieta mediterránea complementada con frutos secos y los restantes una dieta pobre en grasas tanto de origen animal como vegetal. Finalmente, los resultados demostraron que el primer grupo era el que obtenía mejores resultados.















Concretamente, los resultados presentados hoy en Madrid (y publicados en la revista JAMA Internal Medicine), demuestran que las mujeres que consumen unas cuatro cucharadas soperas de aceite de oliva virgen extra al día reducen hasta dos tercios su riesgo de desarrollar un cáncer de mama.

Como explica a EL MUNDO el catedrático Miguel Ángel Martínez -el autor principal de este estudio- las participantes (4.282 mujeres) fueron divididas en tres grupos cuyas características eran idénticas salvo por la dieta: mediterránea rica en aceite de oliva (50 gramos diarios), mediterránea rica en frutos secos (30 gramos diarios de nueces y almendras o avellanas) y una dieta baja en grasas.

Entre todas las mujeres, el número de casos de cáncer de mama a lo largo de un seguimiento de cinco años fue de sólo 35 (un número muy bajo teniendo en cuenta que una de cada ocho debería haberlo desarrollado, según las estadísticas). Probablemente, piensan los autores, porque todas ellas llevaban una dieta bastante sana ("al tercer grupo no le dijimos que comiese hamburguesas todos los días"). En el caso del aceite de oliva se apreció una reducción del riesgo de tener cáncer de nada menos que del 68%. Con los frutos secos también se observó cierta protección pero no llegó a ser estadísticamente significativa.

Como explica el catedrático de la Universidad de Navarra e investigador principal del Centro de Investigación en Red CIBERobn, en líneas celulares y experimentos con animales algunos polifenoles del aceite de oliva virgen extra han demostrado su capacidad para detener la progresión del cáncer. Por eso, la hipótesis que tiene más peso es que el consumo de aceite de oliva (siempre hablando de la variedad virgen extra) sería capaz de detener la evolución de algunas células malignas muy incipientes que pudiesen tener algunas de estas 4.000 mujeres.

El estudio PREDIMED excluía explícitamente a pacientes diagnosticadas de cáncer de mama en el momento de su inclusión, pero Martínez considera que sería interesante poder evaluar el efecto del aceite de oliva en pacientes con tumores diagnosticados. A su juicio
, y puesto que este condimento no tiene ningún riesgo para la salud, cualquier paciente debería incluirlo en su dieta sin dudarlo. En el futuro, anuncia además su autor, el PREDIMED seguirá arrojando datos sobre los beneficios dl aceite en otros tipos de cáncer. Aunque para conocer esos datos aún habrá que esperar.


http://www.elmundo.es/salud/2015/09/14/55f676e822601d6c418b456f.html