jeudi 21 janvier 2016

La nourriture (Food)

Le petit déjeuner (breakfast) 

le déjeuner (lunch)

le dîner (dinner)

J'ai faim! - I'm hungry!

Ton frère a faim. - Your brother's hungry.

La nourriture - food

Je veux manger! - I want to eat!

Je mange ... - I eat ...

le poisson - fish

les bonbons - sweets

les frites - chips

un gâteau - a cake

un yaourt - a yoghurt

une glace - an icecream

Bon appétit! - Enjoy your food!

Delicious, eh? In French you could say:

Miam miam! - Yum!

If you don't like the taste though, you might say:

Berk! - Yuck!

Rather than saying 'yum' or 'yuck', you might want to say you like or don't like a certain type of food. To do that you use the phrases j'aime or je n'aime pas.

J'aime... - I like...

Je n'aime pas... - I don't like...

You use beaucoup (a lot) and un peu (a bit) to add more information.

beaucoup - a lot

un peu - a bit

J'aime beaucoup les gâteaux. - I like cakes a lot.

J'aime un peu les légumes. - I like vegetables a little bit.

You could also say:

Je préfère - I prefer

Je préfère les sandwichs au fromage. - I prefer cheese sandwiches.

Doing the previous assignment, your supermarket list would've looked like this using the correct indefinite article (un, une) and the plural of each (des) and (du and de la).

Mon père va acheter des articles au supermarché
(My father is going to by some items at the supermarket)

Des aliments :

Un orange (An orange)
Des oranges (Some oranges)

Un ananas (A pineapple)
Des ananas (Some pineapples)

Un raisin (A grape)
Des raisins (Some grapes)

Un raisin sec (A raisin)
Des raisins secs (Some raisins)

Une pomme verte (A green apple)
Des pommes vertes (Some green apples)

Une pomme rouge (A red apple)
Des pommes rouges (Some red apples)

De la glace (Some ice)

Des boissons:

De la bière (Some beer)
Du chocolat (Some chocolat)

Du champagne (Some champagne)
Du chocolat (Some chocolat)
Du sucre (Some sugar)
Du jus de pomme (Some apple juice)
Du jus de raisin (Some grape juice)
Du Sprite (Some Sprite)
Du pepsi (Some Pepsi)

Hint: De la and du are used for shopping items or food products that cannot be counted. For example, apples can be counted but beer cannot unless you are saying "Des bouteilles de bière" (bottles of beer). 
Is important to know the gender of the object so that you may know when to use Un, une, des, de la and du.

De + la = De la
De + le = Du
De + les = Des

The plural of both Un and une is also des.

dimanche 17 janvier 2016

Glossaire des mots (Glossary of words)

On commence - Let's begin/ let's start

Je te donne des exercices maintenant - I am giving you some exercises now

Je vous donne des exercices maintenant - I am giving you some exercises now

Prions maintenant - Let's pray now

Oui - Yes

Non - No

Ouais - Yeah

Pas mal - Not bad

Bien! - Good!

Très bien! - Very good!

Excellent! - Excellent! 

D'accord - Ok 

C'est bon - It's ok

Maintenant - Now

N'importe quoi - Whatever

Qu'est-ce qu'il y a? - What's wrong? What's happening?

On y va - Let's go

On prie/ Prions - Let's pray

Excuse-moi - Excuse me (To one person, to friend/ classmate)

Excusez-moi - Excuse me (To more than one person, to teacher or principal)

Puis-je aller aux toilettes, s'il vous plaît? - May I please go to the bathroom/restroom?

Puis-je boire de l'eau, s'il vous plaît? - May I please drink some water?

Oui, tu peux - Yes, you may

Non, tu ne peux pas - No, you may not

Est-ce que vous avez terminé? - Have you finished?

Est-ce que vous avez fini? - Have you finished?

Est-ce que tu es prêt? - Are you ready?

Est-ce que tu es prête? - Are you ready? (To a female only)

Est-ce que vous êtes prêts? - Are you ready?

Est-ce que vous êtes prêtes? - Are you ready (To more than one female or a group of females)

Je suis prêt - I am ready

Je suis prête - I am ready (Said by females only)

Nous sommes prêts - We are ready

Merci, Monsieur! - Thank you, Sir!

Merci, Madame! - Thank you, Miss!

Merci beaucoup! - Thank you very much!

Fillers in speech are words that don't add any real meaning to the sentence, except for maybe emphasis. Examples in English include uh, um, well, I mean, I guess, you know?, so, ok, etc. You should get used to just ignoring these words when you hear them, so that you can focus on the key words in the sentence.

Quoi is the most common filler that I hear in everyday speech. It can be used to add emphasis to emotions or thoughts or to show impatience. It is usually said at the very end of the sentence.

Voilà is often used with quoi at the end of the sentence.

  1. A la limite is mostly used by young people, and can be translated as I suppose or I mean.
  2. Tu vois ? is the closest approximation for you know?
  3. Bon begins or ends a thought, similar to ok. It also can express anger or impatience, similar tofine! (Ah, bon ? actually means "really?" and not "good.")
  4. Ben (pronounced liked bain) adds emphasis to questions, statements, commands and yes or no.
  5. Bon ben is used to wrap up a thought or conversation. Translated as ok or well.
  6. Donc emphasizes a question or command.
  7. Alors emphasizes an interjection and yes or no.
  8. Moi is commonly added to commands involving the senses. The closest translation in English is "just." Regarde-moi-ça ! Just look at that!
  9. Eh bien means well... at the beginning of a sentence or thought.[not recorded yet] 
  10. Hein ? is similar to eh? at the end of a sentence.
  11. Euh... is the filler equivalent to uh or um when you're thinking of what to say next.
  12. Voyons... is similar to let's see.

L'introduction aux verbes français (Introduction to French Verbs)

Introduction to French verbs

A verb is the action word in a sentence. It can tell you what is happening, name an action, describe a feeling, or indicate a state of being.

In the English present tense, there are just two verb forms, or conjugations, depending on the subject. There's one form for the third person singular, and another for all other subjects: I sing, you sing, we sing,they sing, but he sings and she sings.

The verb to be is the only exception, with three conjugations: I am, you are, he is, we are, they are.

In contrast, French verbs have up to six conjugations 

Parler - To speak/to talk

1) Je parle - I am speaking, I speak/I am talking, I talk

2) Tu parles - You are speaking/ You speak/ You are talking, you talk

3) Il parle - He is speaking/ He speaks/ He is talking, he talks

Elle parle - She is speaking/ She speaks

4) Nous parlons - We are speaking/ We speak

5) Vous parlez - You are speaking, you speak/ You are talking, you talk (used for addressing someone politely, when speaking to more than one person)

6) Ils parlent-  They are speaking, they speak/ They are talking, they talk (Males only or for both males and females)

Elles parlent - They are speaking, they speak/ They are talking, they talk (Females only)

There are three different sets of verbs in French:

ER verbs - Aimer, Additionner, Chanter, Écouter Parler, Terminer, 

IR verbs - Choisir, Grandir, Grossir, Vouloir,

RE verbs - Comprendre, Écrire, Être, Faire, Prendre Soustraire,

Here are some additional useful verbs and their conjugations and their endings:

ER verbs have these endings: es, es, e, ons, ez, ent

Aimer - To like/love

J'aimes - I like/I love

Tu aimes - You like/you love (Informal)

Il/Elle aime - He likes, he loves/ She likes, she loves

Nous aimons - We like/We love

Vous aimez - You like/ You love (Formal)

Ils/Elles aiment - They like/ They love

Other verbs like Aimer are: Écouter, parler, prier, bavarder, cliquer, etc

(Note that some verbs are stem-changing)

Manger - To eat

Je manges - I am eating

Tu manges - You are eating (Informal)

Il/Elle mange - He/She is eating

Nous mangeons - We are eating

Vous mangez - You are eating (Formal)

Ils/Elles mangent - They are eating

RE verbs have these endings: s, s, __, ons, ez, ent

Attendre - To wait, to wait for

J'attends - I am waiting, I wait

Tu attends - You are waiting, you wait (Informal)

Il/Elle attend - He is waiting, he waits/She is waiting, she waits

Nous attendons - We are waiting, we wait

Vous attendez - You are waiting, you wait (Formal)

Ils/Elles attendent - They are waiting, they wait

Other verbs like attendre are: Rendre, defendre, entendre, se detendre, etc

(Note that some verbs are stem-changing or irregular)

Prendre - To take

Je prends - I am taking, I take

Tu prends - You are taking, you take (Informal)

Il/Elle prend - He is taking, he takes/She is taking, she takes

Nous prenons - We are taking, we take

Vous prenez - You are taking, you take (Formal)

Ils/Elles prennent - They are taking, they take

Comprendre - To understand

Je comprends - I am understanding, I understand

Tu comprends - You are understanding, you understand (Informal)

Il/Elle comprend - He is understanding, he understands/She is understanding, she understands

Nous comprenons - We are understanding, we understand

Vous comprenez - You are understanding, you understand (Formal)

Ils/Elles comprennent - They are understanding, they understand

IR verbs have these endings: it, is, it, issons, issez, issent

Choisir - To choose

Je choisit - I am choosing, I choose

Tu choisis - You are choosing/ you choose

Il/Elle choisit - He is choosing, he chooses/She is choosing, she chooses

Nous choisissons - We are choosing, we choose

Vous choisissez - You are choosing, you choose

Ils/Elles choisissent - They are choosing, they choose